Learning is a lifelong process that starts from a very early age, and in my opinion, right from the womb. Children are born with an innate desire to learn and explore their environment. They start learning from the moment they are born and continue to learn and grow throughout their lives. Understanding how children learn is essential for parents, educators, and caregivers to provide the right environment and resources to facilitate learning.

There are many theories of learning, but the most prominent ones are behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each theory offers a different perspective on how children learn and develop.


Behaviorism is a theory that suggests that all behavior is learned through conditioning. This means that behavior is shaped by the environment, and the consequences of that behavior determine whether it will be repeated or not. Behaviorists believe that children are blank slates, and their behavior is shaped by the environment around them.

One of the most famous behaviorists was B.F. Skinner, who developed the theory of operant conditioning. This theory suggests that behavior is influenced by its consequences. For example, if a child receives a reward for completing a task, they are more likely to repeat that behavior in the future.


Cognitivism is a theory that suggests that learning is a mental process. It focuses on how children process information and how they use that information to make sense of the world around them. Cognitivists believe that children are active learners who use their existing knowledge to learn new things.

Jean Piaget was a famous cognitive psychologist who developed the theory of cognitive development. Piaget believed that children go through four stages of cognitive development, and each stage is characterized by a different way of thinking. He suggested that children actively construct their knowledge and understanding of the world around them.


Constructivism is a theory that suggests that children construct their knowledge through their experiences. This means that children learn by doing, and they develop their understanding of the world by interacting with it. Constructivists believe that children are active learners who are capable of constructing their understanding of the world around them.

Lev Vygotsky was a famous constructivist who developed the theory of sociocultural learning. Vygotsky suggested that children learn through social interactions and that their learning is mediated by more knowledgeable others. He believed that learning is a social process, and children learn best when they are engaged in meaningful activities with others.

Now, to address how children learn; children learn through a combination of these theories, and their learning is influenced by their environment, experiences, and interactions with others. Here are some ways in which children learn:

Observation and Imitation
Children learn by observing and imitating others. They watch their parents, caregivers, and peers, and mimic their behavior. For example, a child may learn to speak by observing others and imitating the sounds they hear.

Trial and Error
Children learn through trial and error. They try something, and if it does not work, they try something else. This process helps them develop problem-solving skills and learn from their mistakes.

Children learn through reinforcement. When they do something that is rewarded or praised, they are more likely to repeat that behavior in the future. For example, if a child gets rewarded for completing a task, they are more likely to do that task again to receive another reward.

Exploration and Discovery
Children learn by exploring and discovering the world around them. They use their senses to explore their environment and discover new things. For example, a child may learn about the texture of a toy by touching it and feeling it.

Play is an essential part of learning for children. It allows them to explore their environment, develop their imagination, and learn social skills. Play also helps children develop cognitive skills, such as problem-solving, creativity, and critical thinking.

The Concept of Multiple Intelligences

The concept of multiple intelligences, proposed by Howard Gardner, is a valuable addition to understanding how children learn. The theory of multiple intelligences emphasizes that children have unique strengths and preferences in how they acquire and process information. Recognizing and nurturing these diverse intelligences can significantly enhance a child’s learning experience.

Gardner suggested that intelligence is not a single, fixed entity but rather a combination of different abilities or intelligence. He identified eight different intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.

Linguistic intelligence relates to language and verbal communication. Children with strong linguistic intelligence excel in reading, writing, storytelling, and engaging in discussions. They learn best through reading, listening to lectures, and engaging in conversations with others.

Logical-mathematical intelligence involves logical reasoning and problem-solving. Children who possess this intelligence demonstrate strong analytical and critical thinking skills. They enjoy puzzles, patterns, and mathematical operations. They learn best through activities that involve logic, reasoning, and systematic thinking.

Spatial intelligence is associated with visual and spatial perception. Children with spatial intelligence have a keen sense of space, shapes, and colors. They excel in tasks such as drawing, painting, and interpreting maps. They learn best through visual aids, diagrams, and hands-on activities that allow them to manipulate objects in space.

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence refers to physical movement and coordination. Children with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence excel in activities that involve body control, such as sports, dance, and acting. They learn best through hands-on experiences, role-playing, and physical activities that engage their bodies.

Musical intelligence involves sensitivity to rhythm, melody, and sound. Children with musical intelligence exhibit a strong aptitude for playing instruments, singing, and recognizing musical patterns. They learn best through music, songs, and rhythmic activities.

Interpersonal intelligence focuses on understanding and interacting with others. Children with high interpersonal intelligence have excellent social skills, empathy, and the ability to work collaboratively. They learn best through group activities, discussions, and cooperative projects that involve interaction with peers.

Intrapersonal intelligence relates to self-awareness and introspection. Children with strong intrapersonal intelligence have a deep understanding of their own emotions, strengths, and weaknesses. They learn best through reflection, independent projects, and self-paced activities.

Naturalistic intelligence is connected to nature and the environment. Children with high naturalistic intelligence show a profound appreciation for the natural world, an ability to identify and categorize natural objects, and an understanding of ecological systems. They learn best through outdoor experiences, nature walks, and hands-on exploration of the natural environment.

By considering the theory of multiple intelligences, parents, educators, and caregivers can provide various learning opportunities that cater to each child’s unique strengths. This approach allows children to engage in activities that resonate with their intelligence, fostering a sense of competence and motivation to learn. It also encourages a more inclusive and holistic perspective on education, acknowledging that intelligence extends beyond traditional academic measures.

On a final note, understanding how children learn involves recognizing the interplay of various learning theories, such as behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Likewise, incorporating the concept of multiple intelligences into our understanding of children’s learning processes can provide valuable insights into tailoring educational approaches and environments that accommodate diverse strengths and preferences. By embracing these perspectives, we can create enriching learning experiences that empower children to reach their full potential.


By: Nelson Egbunu